Saturday, February 8, 2020
Prophecy - Essay Example The prophecy of denunciation is when the events in the future are foretold based on the surrounding causes which can be prevented only by divine intervention or a miracle. Prophets speak definitely when they tell such prophecies of denunciation (newadvent.org). The prophecy of foreknowledge deals more with the individual, and man, in general. This kind of prophecy occurs when God shows the future that are relatively the consequences of manÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and decisions, including the occurrences of war and the unending debates between the religious and the government (newadvent.org). The prophecy of predestination is a kind of prophecy where it is only God who can make such events happen, and He is the only one who knows when it will happen. This implies GodÃ¢â¬â¢s infallibility and divine power over all living things on earth (newadvent.org). History. The Catholic Church has recognized the Book of Revelation as the last form of prophecy, despite the numerous blessed individuals that she has recognized to have the gift of prophecy. From the Greek word, apokalypto, meaning to reveal, the Book of Revelation has been also known as the Apocalypse (newadvent.org). The Apocalypse was written by the apostle John, who traditionally, was recognized as the Seer. Arguments have been raised against the Apocalypse during the early ages, as Romans have contested its context, and it was only before the beginning of the third century, historians of the Catholic Church recognized the Apocalypse to be a gospel of John, the apostle (newadvent.org). Major Divisions of the Apocalypse. The Book of revelations is structured into three divisions, namely: the exhortatory letters, the seven seals and the drama of the lamb. The first part of the book focuses on the seven churches of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea. The letters are epistles written for
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Environmental Protection UK Essay Two lower primary boys died and their father and his girlfriend were equally hospitalized in coma after a terrible encounter with odorless, colorless and toxic fumes that leaked into their bungalow residence from a nearby hotel old and deteriorated boiler (Haines 2010). Carbon monoxide is a toxic and deadly gas that besides being odorless and invincible is quite light than air therefore rendering the gas more terrible in case of leakage. Mild exposure to the gas makes one get disoriented with dizziness and nauseating effect that render someone fatigued and sick. Continuous exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) leads to death within a short time for children while adults can pass out into a coma and if medical care is not guaranteed death is inevitable. Organically the gas contains oxygen molecule triple bonded with carbon and usually reacts with the body depriving the red blood cells ability from picking oxygen in presence of the lighter gas leading to cell suffocation due to lack of oxygen. Therefore the general public should be well familiar with the grave danger of CO that is usually liberated in partial combustion of petroleum products, gas, wood and coal that are used in boilers, engines, heaters and burners. Consequently it is important that the domestic home environment is sealed from dangers associated with CO gas leakages that are common due to presence of combustible materials in kitchen, garages and power generating equipment. Carbon monoxide in homes is as a result of partial combustion of fuels like gas, oil, coal or wood in various home appliances. This gas then leaks out into the atmosphere and inhaled by its victims unknowingly since it is odorless, colorless and very toxic to the thus calling for availability of first aid kits in all homes. Human efforts of preventing air leakage into the house especially during the cold season reduces the availability of fresh air into the house thus posing a threat of carbon monoxide congesting in the house especially when combustion activities are going on such as cooking or heating up the room. Use of unvented gas heaters and kerosene stoves can become a good source of carbon monoxide in homes since the fresh oxygen is inhibited from getting into the house or cooking room thus combustion is not fully achieved resulting into production of carbon monoxide. Worn out and poorly maintained devises that use combustion can lead to leakage of carbon monoxide saturation in homes due to untimely disconnections, blockage, wrong size of equipment that result from making use of unqualified personnel to install the house hold appliances or delay in replacing worn out ones . Such equipment includes boilers, heaters, generators and furnaces (EPA 2010). Blocked chimneys and poorly vented ventilations encourage accumulation of carbon monoxide in homes. Animal nests or thrown materials in chimneys always results into the carbon monoxide spilling back into the house thus leading to inhalation by any life animal and people found in the house or room. Further, blockages inhibit oxygen entry during combustion thus very little oxygen is made available for combustion which results into carbon monoxide production in the house thus posing a threat to lives. Storage of vehicles in attached garage leads to Carbon monoxide emission through the exhaust pipe especially during the warming up of the engine. Warming up of automobiles and other machines powered by gasoline like generators ,lawn mowers and grills in enclosed areas pose carbon monoxide poisoning hazard Use of charcoal burners, driers or ovens to heat up a poorly ventilated house leads to carbon monoxide build up and saturation in homes (NMGCO 1). Carbon monoxide is known to inhibit the capability of the blood carrying blood to major body most essential organs such as the heart, brain and liver. Upon inhalation, Carbon monoxide being a lighter gas than oxygen dissolves faster through the alveoli wall unto the red blood cellsÃ¢â¬â¢ hemoglobin. The oxygen carrying protein has cooperatively ability such than it easily combines with large portions of available and lighter gas carbon monoxide thus forming a compound known as carboxyhemoglobin instead of oxyhemoglobin that is readily spent by the body cells (Robert 2010). Since carboxyhemoglobin is never used in the body, the blood is soon saturated with a foreign gas that cannot be easily removed thus depriving oxygen the hemoglobin transporting protein leading to oxygen deprivation that leads to headache, dizziness, fatigue, and chest pain to individuals with heart problems at lower concentration (NMGCO 2010). When the carbon monoxide concentration gets higher than the body immunity can handle it leads to poor vision and sensitization of the body cells in the victims leading to nausea, brain malfunction and mind confusion. At extreme concentration, carboxyhemoglobin is formed in the blood thus inhibiting the intake of oxygen in the body thus resulting into death of the victims (Bailey 2010). There are different measures that can be applied in order to reduce carbon monoxide poisoning accidents whose incidents are quite expensive to mitigate. Since the gas is tasteless, odorless and colorless, therefore carbon monoxide detectors can be installed in homes and domestic environments. Usually the accumulation of carbon monoxide can take place without notice in homes that use boiler, gas, kerosene and oil if the equipment is faulty. Regular checks should be organized by home-keepers by inviting qualified and focused technicians who can do professional repairs. Old burners, boilers, generators and CO producing equipment can be done away with in order to prevent unfortunate mistakes (CO 2000). According to US Environmental Protection Agency gas stoves can be done away with if the home environment is to be kept safe since though the equipment is cheap it pumps 5 to 15 parts per million (ppm) of carbon monoxide with the deteriorated ones scoring 30 ppm while the U. S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards advocates for outdoor air to contain 9 ppm and indoor a maximum of 35ppm of CO-thus the stove and coal appliances need to be used in open ground (Pollutte 2008). Meticulousness approach to usage of boilers and stoves can be achieved by usage of clear and dry fuel of the highest possible approved standards (Environment 2010). Other measures include having a Gas Safe Registered engineer to install gas appliances with annual checks. Bedroom heating material should avoid usage of gas and cabinet heaters. All homes that operate CO emitting appliances have to install chimneys and heat ventilations tat have to be checked frequently to clear blockage by cleaning (NHS 2009). In case of an emergence one should cut off the gas supply in the appropriate valve with immediate ventilation and urgent call to a medical facility and a qualified and certified technician to check on the leakage and report appropriately the cause with effective repairs to protect life and environment. Information dissemination to the community is quite vital if the health of the society is to be-held as a top priority. Carbon monoxide incidents can be compiled together to arouse the mind of the ignorant public about the ill effects of CO leakage and prove that all homes are at risk since gas and coal heaters are common cooking apparatus. Also the history brings in news about the colossal effects of accumulated amounts of carbon monoxide that affected legendaries as Allan Poe though during that time their generation attributed their deaths to sensitivity of the mind. Therefore if leaflets, magazines and other printed media forms of communication in conjunction with the internet, TV and other digital and analogue mass media the community can be reached and change can be effected bringing about both awareness and a social order that is organized to mitigating risks associated with carbon monoxide poisoning. Conclusively, carbon monoxide poisoning affects the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s concentration of oxygen thus attacking the general health of the suffocated body parts. Since the gas is odorless, tasteless, and colorless makes it such a dreadful chemical gas that further enhances the fumesÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to sneak in and kill within a relative small span of time in high concentrations while causing detrimental body health deterioration that retards immunity leading to poor health and life. References: Haines, S 2010, Corfu Ã¢â¬Å"carbon monoxide death familys fight for justiceÃ¢â¬ , BBC News Channel, accessed 5 May 2010 http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/bradford/8497271. stm NHS, 2009, Ã¢â¬Å"What preventative measures can I take against carbon monoxide exposure? Gas safety Carbon monoxide awarenessÃ¢â¬ . Health and safety Executive, accessed 5 May 2010 http://www. hse. gov. uk/gas/domestic/co. htm Pollette, C 2008, Ã¢â¬Å"Why is carbon monoxide poisonous? Ã¢â¬ Science, accessed 5 May http://science. howstuffworks. com/question190. htm Environment, 2010, Ã¢â¬Å"Using wood and coal for Home heating. Environmental Protection UK , accessed 5 May http://www. environmental-protection. org. uk/air-quality-and- climate/air-quality/solidfuel/ Robert, R 2009, Ã¢â¬Å"Is This Common Poison Carbon Monoxide Causing Chronic Illness? Ã¢â¬ Articles Directory http://www. articlesbase. com/alternative-medicine-articles/is-this-common- poison-carbon-monoxide-causing-chronic-illness-1433959. html CO, 2009, Ã¢â¬Å"A Guide to Prevent Carbon Monoxide PoisoningÃ¢â¬ , Carbon Monoxide, accessed 5 May http://www. carbon-monoxide-poisoning. com/ EPA 2010,An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality, Carbon Monoxide (CO), US Environmental protection Agency, Accessed 05 May 2010 http://www. epa. gov/iaq/co. html NMGCO 2010, Sources of Carbon Monoxide, New Mexico gas company, Accessed 05 May 2010 http://www. nmgco. com/Sources_Carbon_Monoxide. aspx Bailey, R 2010 Carbon monoxide,About. com Accessed 05 May 2010 http://biology. about. com/od/molecularbiology/a/carbon_monoxide. htm
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Absurd Morality of Death in The Outsider In The Outsider by Albert Camus, death can clearly be seen as a significant image - there being six deaths mentioned in total. In Part One we are shown the natural death of Meursault's mother and Meursault's murder of the Arab, and in Part Two we are presented with the parricide of a brother/son and the subsequent suicide of the perpetrators, another parricide that is to be tried after Meursault's case and the death penalty pronounced on Meursault. Through these depictions of various deaths, Camus shows clearly the conflicting and often arbitrary treatment of death within society, a treatment that reveals a confusion between the motives behind acts and the subsequent response to the completed acts, which ultimately reflects the nature of the absurd prevalent in the novel. Section One: deaths directly linked to Meursault Mrs Meursault's Funeral Death, as an important image, is established in the very first sentence of the book, "Mother died today." The simplicity and directness of this statement is shocking for the reader, and leads us to try to understand what sort of man Meursault is - a task that we discover later has been laid as a trap for us. However, even though this first sentence is simple and direct, it is confused in the very next sentence, "Or maybe yesterday, I don't know." This confusion over the time of the death can be generalised to the circumstances of the death, which are in this case unclear, and indeed we are never told what the cause of Mrs Meursault's death was. All we have are the allusions to her age, "About sixty," and her 'friend', who was "an old man" that could not prevent himself from "fainting (like a disloca... ...t, The Outsider (Penguin Classics), p60.  Ibid. P69.  Ibid. P63.  Ibid. P64.  Ibid. P85.  Ibid. P85.  Ibid. P57.  Ibid. P58.  Ibid. P58.  Ibid. P60  Camus, Albert, The Outsider (Penguin Classics, 2000), p64  Ibid. P68.  Ibid. P98.  Ibid. P99.  Ibid. P116  Ibid. P103.  Camus, Albert, The Outsider (Penguin Classics, 2000), p104.  Ibid. P109.  Ibid. P109.  Ibid. P114.  Ibid. P112.  Ibid. P115.  Ibid. P117.  Ibid. P117.  Camus, Albert, The Outsider (Penguin Classics, 2000), p77.  Ibid. P78.  Camus, Albert, The Outsider (Penguin Classics, 2000), p 78.  Ibid. P78  Ibid. P82.  Ibid. P82.  Ibid. P102.  Camus, Albert, The Outsider (Penguin Classics, 2000), p116.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Background of the Study Poor health literacy is a stronger predictor of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s health than age, income, employment status, education level, and race. There is a high correlation between the ability to read and health literacy, but it is important to recognize that patients who are fully literate may be health illiterate (American Medical Association). Nowadays, knowledge is vital for maintaining and achieving optimum health. The concept of health literacy has come to the forefront in healthcare. Health literacy is defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisionsÃ¢â¬ (Ratzen &Park, 2000). Half of our population has limited literacy skills, which affects health literacy. To determine the extent of this impact, the Institute of Medicine formed a committee to examine health literacy. As nurses we need to use this knowledge about health literacy to assist our patients in understanding their health and interacting with the healthcare system. Health literacy has three components (Baker DW (1999)). : First, literacy: a lack of capacity to read, write, communicate, or solve problems which affects the ability of an individual to gain necessary knowledge of health and health systems; Second, comprehension: a lack of capacity to understand how health and health care services are structured and operate to meet health and health care needs and how they can be accessed; and third, participation: a lack of capacity to follow a course of treatment or self-management that will improve health and wellbeing, or change behaviour to prevent disease processes starting or progressing. These components may not be anything new, but they do help to clarify what the purpose of any interventions to promote health literacy and prevent the consequence of its absence for individuals within a wider population, as well as for the public health and health care professionals who work with them. It may be old fashioned, but it is almost possible to recognize a primary, secondary and tertiary preventative approach could be applied to such components. The researchers were puzzled whether the patient who is illiterate has been taking the correct patient education from the nurses. The researchers decided to have such study to know the difference of the recovery and health process between the literate and illiterate patients among the Medical and Surgical Ward at Davao Medical Center. According to Parker(2003), health and health care are increasingly characterized by technological sophistication, and choice by Ã¢â¬Å"informedÃ¢â¬ consumers is of growing importance in the market. Patients who are better informed about their options and who understand the evidence behind certain approaches to care may have better health outcomes. Those without adequate understanding-without adequate health literacy-cannot function successfully in a market designed for active, informed consumers. They are the ones most likely to be left behind. Problems with health literacy are extremely common and costly; more than half of the individuals are experiencing problems to read and understand the information needed to function in the health care system. Being exposed to a public hospital setting, the researchers handle different patients with different levels of intellectual capacity. In most instances, patients who are illiterate make the incorrect decisions regarding health care and sometimes, it affects their recovery or health status. It becomes a huge barrier to proper health care. The researchers are going to assess the lack of information and nursing interventions the hospital has for the illiterate. The main purpose of this study is to know how the hospital setting handles patient who are illiterate. As nurses of the future, we need to gather some information about the different ways of health teachings that should be appropriate to different types of people. (1 and a half ang intro and last is the reason why you pick the study) Theoretical Framework Ã¢â¬Å"Nursing is the art of improving and providing culturally congruent care to people that is beneficial, will fit with, and will be useful o the client, family, or culture group healthy life ways. Ã¢â¬ (Madeleine Leinenger). Madeleine LeinengerÃ¢â¬â¢s Transcultural Theory of Nursing forwards the principle that caring is the true essence of nursing. Caring is also the dominant, distinctive, and unifying feature of nursing. Human caring, however, varies from one culture to another in terms of how it is expressed and the processes and patterns unique to the culture. LeiningerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of Cultural Care is a product of devoted consciousness of an ever changing world, wherein individual is at play with society and their environment. The core of the theory was derived from all her experiences in hospital, clinic and in the community setting. World War II became the nest wherein the theory developed; it was during this period that many immigrants and refugees from diverse cultures were moving to the United States and to other places worldwide. With direct observations and interactions with clients of diverse cultures, with variety of health conditions, she became conscious that recovery from illnesses and or maintaining health and wellbeing was greatly affected by how health care was provided to them. The major event that led to the development of her theory happened in the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s where she worked as a clinical specialist caring for mildly disturbed children of diverse cultural backgrounds. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a humanistic and scientific caring discipline and profession with the main focus of serving individuals, groups, communities, societies, andÃ institutions by carefully considering cultural care dimensions such as: worldwide view of caring, language of caring, philosophical and religious factors, kinship and social factors, cultural values, beliefs, and life ways, political and legal factors, economic factors, educational factors, and technological factors. Conceptual Framework Based on Madeleine LeinengerÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory, the patient needs different way of healthcare provision, proportional to his culture to attend a high level of health. The major conceptual elements of the origin and emergent theory are: human care, culture, culture care, culture care diversity, culture care universality, social and cultural structure dimensions, and world view. As and discussed in the theory, there are 9 factors to consider in administering health care and healthy teachings to the client. If these factors are considered, high level of health can be given to the patient. The independent variable is the health literacy- literacy, cooperation, and participation of the patient; and the dependent variable is the barriers in patient education. The relationship between the independent and dependent variable is that the dependent variable relies on its independent variable and they work together to achieve its ultimate goal Ã¢â¬â which is to help render optimum care that the researchers can give to their patients. DEPENDENT VARIABLE Barrier to patient education: a. Compliance to Medication b. Lifestyle changes c. Follow-up care INDEPENDENT VARIABLE Health literacy: a. Intellectual Capacity b. Comprehension c. Participation a. Age b. Gender c. Educational attainment d. Religion Figure 1: CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Sample details Pages: 21 Words: 6210 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? High prices of oil and steady resource depletion have raised international concerns for energy supply security. Thriving exploration is a significant factor and activity for future oil production. The global economy is currently experiencing high level of international business forces acting upon its stableness. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Abstract (Brief Summary of Research Project)" essay for you Create order International oil prices relation to international crisis is an essential element in the global economy. This study reveals the insights and effects of oil and gas exploration in the international crisis. This research paper presents the effects of oil prices on the international relations. The paper presents the strategies and the requirement in filling these effects by providing empirical findings on oil price volatility in relation to international trade, international terrorism, natural disasters, wars, global economic stability, global financial crises, politically instigated crises among other international variables. The foundation for this research is the correlation between oil prices and international relation. The paper presents the preliminary results and information derived from the data currently being generated by the international economy, international trade and other global organization economic watchdogs This paper explores whether there is stable and reliable oil price shocks relationship with the U.S Dollar nominal exchange rate and other countries currency. Regardless of the state of art methodologies and precise data, I find inconsistently slight logical relation between oil prices and the exchange rate. The paper generally focuses on the international crisis conduct with the emphasis on the strategies development in the detailed results of the research. These include the conflicts resolutions on the international oil prices settlements. I reviewed several prominent hypothesis and theories, methodologies about the resolution of the crisis especially to the western and the Middle East countries which are the most oil competing countries. The paper investigates factors contributing to the increase of oil price. The crude oil demand and supply and development of a crude oil prices model to include refinery utilization rates is discussed. This brings an OPEC capacity utilization non linear effect. In developing the oil prices correlation to international crisis the project focuses on the following major areas of study: Positive and negative factors that affect the international oil prices. The effects of oil and natural gas price on the global economy especially the West (Ratner, 2011). Effects of oil price on international economic variables. Finally the project outlines the relationship between oil prices and international crises. This analysis explores and studyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s two oil effects of oil companies that they have branches in Saudi Arabia. One is Aramco Company and Drilling Company, as their major operation is oil and they face the financial crisis in that time. The companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s among others has brought the price shocks on U.S. and international economic growth. Key Words International crisis, Budget Deficit, Consumer Price Index, OPEC, foreign policy crisis, crisis management, conflict management, decision making, Oil prices, Refinery industry, , Inflation, Real Wage, Purchasing Power Parity, GPD(Gross Domestic Product). Introduction The rapid rise in the oil price is subject to debate on which many economists expresses different views. The crude oil supply from the main oil producers and other downstream sectors are perceived to have the answer to the high rise of the oil prices. The refining capacity in many countries is falling and many existence refineries have unscheduled maintain ace leading to collapse of the oil refinery thus high prices. The major oil crude oil producers from Middle East have experienced difficulties in production sufficiency in ensuring the linear supply of the oil across the globe. Oil shortage expectations are also influential on the oil prices. Major international oil regulatory organizations such as the OPEC and OECD are playing major roles in regulating the oil prices as it greatly affects the international crises. Determination of the oil prices is affected by the existence of relationship non linearity between oil prices and market delivered quantity. Extreme events of linear rel ationship may shift the market stability between supply and demand towards different types of market. In this context, the oil prices are much more sensitive to shocks than under normal conditions. Non-linearity between oil prices and the market may be caused by lags related with development of additional extraction and refining capacity (Ratner, 2011). As the production approaches the oil prices is more sensitive to supply under the given constraint. The cost of doing business increases with increase in energy prices, which tends to erode corporate profits, thus lower stock prices in the market. Higher oil prices have usually spelled bad news for most companies, excluding the oil and energy-related firms. It seems that the recent global financial crisis may have altered some fundamental rules of market behavior. Oil and stocks now make for strange bedfellows (Palash R. Ghosh, 2010). Oil prices and the U.S. stocks have moved in opposite directions. Oil prices are considered to be among the fundamental determinants of the global economic performance (Krichene, 2008). The adjustment of the oil prices leads to changes in terms of trade between oil exporting countries and importing counties. The changes are normally caused by the transfer of income and resources from the importing to the exporting countries (Richter Pahl, 2009).The degree of oil prices adjustments in global economies is based on the proportionate cost of oil to natio nal income, the extent of dependence by end-users to imported oil and their flexibility to switch to other sources of energy such as solar energy, oil sands, ethanol, biodiesel, wind energy, coal mine methane,ÃâÃ geothermal energy, nuclear energy,ÃâÃ hybrid cars, LNG, GTL, and hydrogen fuel cellsÃâÃ , and also dependant on the responsiveness of gas prices to the oil-prices adjustments and the level of gas intensiveness of the respective economy (Krichene 2008). This is the impact of oil prices adjustments to the other sources of energy available in a respective economy (Richter Pahl, 2009). The higher the margin of oil prices adjustments and the longer the new prices are sustained, the greater the macroeconomic impact on the global economy. Oil is the primary source of energy in almost all of the major industries in the global economy. This research seeks to analyze the correlation between oil prices and international crises Literature Review International Crisis: According to Holsti (1991), based on the systems perspective of international crisis, he defined international crisis as the circumstance or situation where normal nature of relations between countries is significantly changed. For example, the uprising in Egypt is a situation that erupted in the international system leading to conflicting interactions against domination of nations globally. Trumbore, (2000) argued that international crisis follows certain stages of progress. These stages include; the pre-crisis warning phase, the crisis phase, crisis abatement phase and finally post-crisis phase, itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s during a crisis that real leadership is tested. This is mainly because normally during the first stage of a crisis, no attention is normally taken. During the second phase when the crisis has taken ground, there is chain of events followed by panic, and control measures from decision makers such as the government. The crisis is normally later controlled before or after causing damage. Holsti (1980) observes that during the last phase, the post-crisis, evaluation and preventive measures are normally put in place. Factors Affecting Oil Prices and its Effects on the Global Economy especially the West. Fluctuations in oil prices have an effect on certain fundamental variants such as nominal wage, real wages, consumer price index, purchasing power parity, budget deficit inflation rate among other macroeconomic variables. (Richter Pahl, 2009). According to Krichene (2008), oil prices are primarily affected by its demand, natural disaster, and political unrests. In addition, Krichene (2008) asserts that restrictive legislation, declining oil productions and speculative buying also influence oil prices significantly. Economic empirical research shows that, when the global economy is exposed to higher oil prices, it leads to inflation, increase in input costs and decrease in investment. The West has been the major casualty of economic shocks caused by oil price fluctuations since it destabilizes their growth capacity which is largely dependent on oil (Richter Pahl, 2009). Comparative to the West, emerging economies are less hit by effects of oil prices in the short-run in form of infl ationary side effects. However, in the long-run, negative effects from the West normally trickle down to the emerging economies (Richter Pahl, 2009). Systematically, global economic effects caused and compounded by the adjustments in oil prices directly or indirectly affect international crises. For instance, the recent international crises, such as the devastating earth quake in Japan, the Arab countries in uprising, the rebelsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ activities in Libya are speculated to dampen progress made on the global economic recession especially in the West (Ratner, 2011). Oil prices and International Crisis: Ratner (2011) an analyst in Energy Policy has observed that with the resent resignation of the long-time Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, the aftermath to the natural gas and oil sector is uncertain. In fact, analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ globally acknowledge that the impact of a disrupted EgyptÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s oil, natural gas, and or the closure of the Suez Mediterranean oil pipeline and the Suez Canal would be catastrophic to the world natural gas and oil market (Ratner, 2011).The uprising in Egypt has already led to adjustments in oil prices globally in anticipation of an international crisis. Even though Egypt is technically considered a small player in the international oil industry, its instability still has severe implication in the global market. This gives evidence of an existing relation between international crisis and oil prices. As the chief regional supplier, the most affected would be Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt accounts for only an average of 2.1% of global oil and natur al gas supply with a proven 1.2% of worldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s gas reserves (Ratner, 2011).Away from oil production, the recent devastating JapanÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s earthquake has already send aftershocks around the global market. In addition to the loss of over 10 000 people, destruction of JapanÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s nuclear power plants leading to radiations emissions, there is a pending economic international crisis. Due to the earth quake impact on the Japanese economy, the production to cars is expected to decline sharply leading to adjustment in prices of oil. This suggest there direct or indirect relationship between the prices of oil and international crisis. The instability in Libya has also led to the soaring of global oil prices which has had led to inflationary pressures globally. Libya holds most of the oil reserves in Africa and it is actually the 15th largest crude oil exporter accounting for 1.2 million barrels of oil daily. It is feared that production losses in this North African country are bound to be absorbed by countries such as Saudi Arabia as a mechanism of compensating for the shortage. Motivation Study of oil prices in global economic and international crisis is an important entity. There is need for study of the relation with international crises .Research on the correlation between oil prices and international crises is important because the findings from this study will address most of the international crises in the world. In the recent global financial crisis, the findings from this research will be essential to control, mitigate effects on the global economy and forestall reoccurrence of the negative impacts in the future. Understanding the correlation of oil prices with international crises such as wars, poverty, the Arab uprisings, situation in Afghanistan, the struggles in Iraq among others would be influential to policy makers in coming up with conclusive political and macroeconomic policies. The research inclusively enhances the global trade market in understanding the root cause of the products price increase. It opens fresh ground and enhances the studies of oil alternative source of energy to reduce overdependence on oil as the primary source of energy. Furthermore, the results from this research will also enhance international relations among nations. Also it will add empirical findings to the existing body of knowledge to the nature of oil and now its relation with international crises. The sustained growth of international business over the past two decades is one of the most significant and dramatic trends across the globe in reducing the international crisis. Business market and trade of most goods and services have significantly expanded with the development in the effective financial implementations in the world (Holsti, 1991). The effect of the oil prices is widely felt in many products but the international business is working towards reducing the oil prices effects. The integration of technology, investments, communication has enhanced the todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s global trade and business connecting the world economies together. Corporate empires emergence in the global economy has changed the business platform which has enhanced the globalization of production (Trumbore, 2000). Problem Statement TodayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s foreign policy devise policies without understanding fundamental variables influencing international crisis in regard to oil prices and vice versa. The crude oil supply from the main oil producers and other downstream sectors are perceived to have the answer to the high rise of the oil prices. The refining capacity in many countries is falling and many existence refineries have unscheduled maintenance leading to collapse of the oil refinery thus high prices. The major oil crude oil producers from Middle East have experienced difficulties in production sufficiency in ensuring the linear supply of the oil across the globe. The empirical study at the two Saudi Arabian oil companies reveals that, the international crisis has an influential factor from these particular companies. Aramco Company and Drilling Company are oil production companies in Saud Arabian region on which they are currently facing the financial crisis. Their conditions on the futures markets have an effect on stock behaviors thus the oil price setting. Their crude oil prices model is increasingly rising affecting the international oil prices. This includes the refinery utilization rates, OPEC capacity utilization non linear effect and deteriorating of futures markets conditions. These are the explanatory variables that exist between the international crisis and the crude oil production. The drilling company is generally on critical conditions as the finding shows the employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s satisfaction thus unstable expertise in the company. This further contributes to low level of productions. There is also incapacity of the crud e oil storage thus the production level is dependent on the capacity storage. The adjustment of the oil prices in the companies shows a rapid rise anticipated by high level of production cost. According to the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work force, the oil exploitation processes which involves the ground drilling is gradually becoming complex. This has led to an increase in exploitation costs as more resources are required thus affecting the oil prices. The low level of production has led to international crisis as the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s are struggling to sustain the global oil market. There is resistance by some of the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s workforce to the declines in wages as the oil price increase and the international crisis typically causes an upward pressure on nominal wage levels. External forces such as the Oil regulating organization which includes OPEC is also affecting the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s marketing position due to the unfavorable policies (Holsti, 1991). According to the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expertise the there has been maintenance of a low stock in provision of efficient oil. They urge that sufficient stock ensures the supply sustainability thus avoiding the oversupply or under supply of the oil. The methodology used to explore the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s conditions on the oil prices involves the updated quarterly data set. The data set is used in estimating the price equation which involves an expansion to accommodate other market conditions across the globe. The wide range of variables enables the estimation of the oil prices co integrating relationship in the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s. Quarterly data set used in evaluating OPEC effect on the oil prices in the company includes observation of the average imported oil from the company. The data showed a decrease in the average as the price rises up. The oil production and the rate of refinery utilization in the company affect the global oil prices thus international crisis. Essentially, co integration between the international oil prices entails that the exploitation rates across the world share the same stochastic trend. Different stochastic trends in oil production and refining rates prevent co-integration among differe nt types of oil prices when the exploitation rates do not share the same stochastic trend. Refinery utilization rates and the exploitation affect crude oil prices based on the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s refineries ability of crude oil conversion to final products. Essentially there are different qualities of crude oil which includes the sweet and sour as well as the heavy and light. The companiesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ oil exploitation and refineries are designed to specifically operate in specific crudes. Therefore there is rise and fall of crude values based on the availability of specific types of crude relative to existing refining capacity. Lack of efficient refining capacity has contributed to the rise of the oil prices and international crisis in the company Trumbore, (2000). The companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s also lacks the sufficient oil production capacity and existence of a non-linear relationship between supply and the oil prices. Results The results acquired from the data collected are generally categorized into the three hypotheses which were the guidelines of the empirical testing. The companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s oil prices have a considerable level of impact on the international oil market. Empirical investigation on the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s oil production activities presented their effect on the international crisis. The analyzed data collected from the companies showed diverse reactions from different collected materials. The increase on the oil exploration costs in the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s has been a major cause of their low level crude oil production. This has an impact of international financial crises on the oil price as they adjust the prices now and then for profitable returns. The correlation relationships between the oil price and the financial crisis of the company have been a major hindrance of the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s growth. Results indicated that the oil refining sector plays a vital role in the recent oil price increase. This effect is related with shifts in the heavy and light grades production of crude oil as well as the price stretch between them. Existence of non linear relationships between OPEC spare capacity and oil prices account for real oil prices changes. The conditions on the futures markets also affect the non linear relationship. Many experts urge that the high oil prices on the global economy are contributed by a number of factors which with the change in oil prices. The changes in GDP were small as compared with past economic recession. The period of oil price shocks experienced drops on GDP growth. The increase in oil prices has affected most of the oil importing countries and the OECD countries. Oil prices and the global economy There exists a paradox and complicated relationship between oil prices and the economics. Production functions used by many economists are basically net of the purchased input. Saudi Arabia production is anticipated to rise within few years due to the experienced bubble in 2008. The oil prices fluctuations effects experienced on 1973 cannot be ignored. It left a great damage to global economy. The debate on the relationship and the effect of the oil prices on the economic activity is complicated by methodology issues. The substance also raises argument on the oil price in relation to economic activity (Trumbore, 2000). The current prices uses the consumer price indexes in economic data deflation recorded in current oil prices. Many of the oil consumers are industrial and commercial enterprises with a distance from the ultimate consumers. Frequently a rise on the oil price can bring the recession although extended economic growth period can provoke an oil prices increase. The principle drivers on the prolonged economic growth seem to have a history of great recession on the nationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s economy. Failure of the country in financial crisis anticipation brings about the great recession. The impact of the oil prices rise is normally nonlinear and asymmetrical as the dollar per barrel increase has different impact on a dollar per barrel decrease at another. Symbolically what rises does not necessary falls the same way. In essence it is difficult to forecast the oil prices demand, and supply for the oil production than it is for the other industries. Oil production industry is relatively different from many other industries. From my preliminary research there is a declining of pressure in majority of reservoirs across the globe. The declining level is sustained by the injection of natural gas, CO2, water or any other energy source. The prompted injection and the consequent cleaning of the crude in the surface consume energy. The processes of extracting the oil from underground are even more energy exhaustive. The energy consumed further increase the oil prices in the market contributing to the international crisis. The high level of technologically complex oil industry complicates the whole economical process which often takes long period of time to commercial fruition. Fluctuation of the oil prices is great than many industrial prices. Many producers especially the Middle East producers have taken long full production periods after the completion of the initial geological work. Thus oil drillers easily fear the risks in prices and other economic activity. The Middle East countries which are the major oil producers have been vulnerable to wars and attacks from terrorism. The terrorism activities have made the oil production unstable due to vulnerability of attacks in the regions. According to studies the Saudi Arabia region is vulnerable to criminal activities thus the oil producing companies fears the attacks. There marine oil transportation has been also faced threats from the pirates a nd other encountered problem in the transportation process. Large amount of European oil is imported through the Red sea between the Yemen and Somali(Richter, Pahl, 2009). There have been many cases of tankers hijacking in seas leading to loss of large amount of capital. This increase the international crisis as the producers is unable to fully exploit oil or transport it due to fear of losses. Heterogeneous nature of the oil market contributes to slow growth of the economy. Many operates in a decentralized and competitive market thus a forms a postulated mainstream. There is an excessive gross margin since the World War II. The international oil prices have intensified the international crisis on which it had defied a competitive market equilibriums basic rule. The margins have currently exceeded the addition cost of oil barrel production. Saudi Arabia region was the supplier of last resort in the period of $2 oil price but its oil costs has incrementally risen to 13% per oil barrel. Today there is no clear indication of the last resort supplier nor the incremental cost due to international crisis experienced. Most of the estimates on the gross margin are apparently below the recent years, market prices of the fuel. Consequently, the incremental gross margins comprehended by oil producing nations are positive. Most of them have a large average gross margins based on the variation between market average prices and out-of-pocket average costs. This provides the correlation between the oil crisis and the international crisis. The oil prices are non equilibrium but there is existence of equilibrium ranges of the oil prices. This leads to an elusive and fragile economic growth in the world. The equilibrium ranges are generated from the time lags of oil processing and transportation. To avoid the time lag oil producers uses the future and forward markets for speculative and hedging purposes. These markets have a major effect on the international crisis on which they become vulnerable to other markets players. These players lay off the bets from other markets and all of a sudden enter the futures markets triggering crisis. The players who are initially the speculators brings about the conflicts in the oil market increasing the international crisis. In the recent oil run up of 147 dollar per barrel, the futures market speculators are estimated to have increased the oil prices from 10 dollar to 20 dollar thus risking the international price of oil. Oil Prices and the Currency Market Oil plays an important role in the global currency market. The price of oil increased dramatically in 2008 when the US dollar value fall as compared to the other currencies. The relationship is that, when the dollar gets weak in its value leads to increase in oil prices thus international crisis. Oil is a very important resource as it is the main source of energy in many production industries. The rising prices have big impact on the inflation of the international economy as it creates added fuel surcharges. The surcharges therefore trigger the core inflation of the world economy as central banks maintain high interest rates. Deficits in nations have increasingly grown with the occurrence of the global economic crisis that started in 2008 due to high oil prices. This has led to global economic effect and the international crisis across the globe on which many economists urges that country should run deficits during periods of recession and those of high unemployment. Financial markets across the globe expresses have expresses fears due to increased in oil prices. They have expressed some behavioral characteristics and explanations of the largely market outcomes particularly of financial flows of both policymakers and investors significant practical consequences of the international crisis. Correlation Oil prices can be correlated positively to international financial markets as seen from the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s empirical study. The world basic products rise as the prices as the price of oil continued to rise, thus this is far much correlated. The period between 2003 and 2006, the world experienced an economic growth. It is easy to make a correlation at this time period as the period experienced the businesses success in many major industries that led to the market rise. At this period the oil price rose as well, though the two were not really it correlated. Financial analysts argue that oil doesnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t necessarily bring a positive correlation to the financial markets. Alternatively financial markets perform well while the price of oil is rising. Negative correlation commonly accepted relationship between financial markets and oil prices. Many companies spend more when the oil prices are high to run their business. The logical explanation to this is that most co mpanies ship their products. Companies also use oil as the source of the energy for the production machinery. Therefore oil is a prime factor in the international crisis. The price of oil and inflation The oil price and inflation are more connected in grounds and effect relationship. ÃâÃ Inflation follows the oil price movement; as the prices of oil movesÃâÃ down or up, it is accompanied by inflation in the same direction. This is because, oil is plays a major role in economic input. It is widely used vital activities thus the rise of input costs leads to increase of cost of end products. The raise of pricing increases the inflation level. The inflation led to the development of the consumer price index (CPI) which measures the inflation. The deterioration of the relationship between inflation and oil started after the 1980s. Generally the wars of the 1990s at GulfÃâÃ WarÃâÃ oil crisis led to doubling of oil prices. The expansion of the foreign exchange to incorporate the oil stocks has affected both the domestic financial accounts and international clients hedging activities. This has been reflected in international crisis as many corporations struggles to sustain their dominance in the market. The foreign exchange is much dominated by the U.S dollar which is followed by the euro and sterling. Emerging oil markets and the international business exposure of many oil producing countries has increased the hedging activities in the foreign exchange. The degree of exchange rate flexibility and the movement of capital across the globe have increased high level of inflation risks. Oil export strategies are underpinned by valued exchange rates generating precedential reserve accumulation in the exchange rate adjustment. Capitals exporting in oil finance investment have been considerable drivers of lower global long-term interest rates in the international business (Richter, Pahl, 2009). The oil shocks have affected the world trade structure. Macroeconomic Impacts of High Oil Prices A high oil demand arises from the products demand that uses oil in their production. Changes in oil prices are shared by the consumers in the prices of the final oil products. The foreign producers are spending more on importing their goods to their respective countries due to high level of fuel prices. Many countries economic purchasing powers are depleted and instead there has been a high level of deficit on many economies(Richter, Pahl, 2009). This is due to high level of borrowing due to budget overruns of many countries. This has further contributed to international crisis across the globe. The increased price of the oil forces many countryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s businesses to invest heavily on the exports production, as opposed to available domestic demand for goods and services. This occurs even though the capacity of foreign oil consumed has no change.ÃâÃ The radical change of oil prices leads to loss of economy as macroeconomic frictions avoid rapid nominal prices changes in the final product. The high oil prices experienced leads to the reluctance of the organizations on lowering the wages and others even losing employment in an effort of cutting the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expenditure. The state of economy is increased and the macroeconomic policies taken at the moment may dampen or heighten the relentlessness of adverse macroeconomic effects. Large and sudden increase in prices has adverse impacts on short-term growth. This growth may be much larger if there is gradual high price, as sudden oil price shocks leads to panic of the firms and households. This in creases the international tension on which the prices prevent them from creation of the near term optimal decisions.ÃâÃ Economic policies which followed after the high inflation experience highly affected the longer term economic impact of high oil prices. The impacts cannot be removed but many oil producing countries has been moderating them. The moderation of these policies has created the crisis with many economies struggling to attain the oil importation from a more reliable source. On the contrary, inappropriate economic policies intensify the adverse high oil price impacts. Exceedingly monetary and fiscal policies contain the inflationary pressures which degenerate the recessionary effects on unemployment and income. This also includes the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies which simply hinder the in real income fall. The income fall is necessitated by the rise of oil prices, inflationary pressures of the stoke which further worsen the higher prices impact in the long run (Palash R. Ghosh, 2010).ÃâÃ Conclusion Oil price change issue is economic impact that is increasingly attracting many debates. Over the past 30 years, the oil price has gradually risen. CountryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s across the world has understood the nature of the possible damage and the economic impact of the rising oil prices. The increase in international crisis has led to unstable global economy. Many economies are struggling to maintain their expenditures but it seems the burden is much heavier. The initial damages of the oil prices were due to war which led to lack of oil exploitation. The damages were considerable on which later led to recession. Current studies show that, the current U.S. economy has a sustained higher oil prices (Palash R. Ghosh, 2010). The higher oil prices have slowed the short-term growth and cannot cause a recession except other factors shock economic decision makers are present. Increase in oil prices has affected the international business and the global monetary. Oil is essentially crucial commodity in any countryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s economy. The rising price has shaken the global economy thus triggering the international crisis. Gradual price increment is due to rising demand of oil across the globe, low stocks of oil, OPEC management strategies, speculation actions, Middle East violence, and Insufficient US refining capacity among other factors. Vibrant flux is the basic paradigm of asset. The merely approach of rational is being replaced by a broader approach which is entirely based upon investors psychology on oil investment. Security expected returns in this approach is therefore determined by both financial misevaluation and risk. Oil market has been termed as a risky market due to unstable market variations. The world oil market dominance among the major oil producing countries has extensively increased the international crisis. Annotated bibliography Holsti, O. R. (1991). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âInternational Systems, System Change and Foreign Policy: Commentary on Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âChanging International SystemsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. Diplomatic History. Vol.15 (1). pp.83-89. As the international financial crisis increase, there have been many factors behind the underlying trend of economic regulation. The principal journal devoted to the history of U.S. diplomacy, foreign relations, and security issues, Diplomatic journal examines issues from the colonial period to the present in a global and comparative context.ÃâÃ The journal offers a variety of perspectives on the economic, strategic, cultural, racial, and ideological aspects of the United States in the world.ÃâÃ This journal appeals to readers from a wide variety of disciplines, including American studies, international economics, American history, national security studies, and Latin-American, Asian, African, European and Middle Eastern studies. The author explores the impact of international financial crises on the oil price and the existing correlation relationships between the oil price and the financial crisis in terms of their odd factors. The positive and negative factors that affe ct the price of oil and the effects of oil and natural gas prices on the global economy especially the West. Holsti, O. R. (1980). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âHistorians, Social Scientists, and Crisis Management: An Alternative ViewÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol.24 (4). pp.666. This Journal of Conflict Resolution is a simple and comprehensive introduction, by the scientist, to the subject of the financial crisis history, the social aspect of the crisis and the crisis management. Firstly the Author has taken as in the historical background of the rising oil prices and the causes. In this chapter, there is discussion of fundamental concepts in the crisis management on which the social scientist has come up with several explanations. The effect of oil prices on international economic variables has been as well discussed with the respect to the major oil producing countries. There has been a literature review on the systems perspective of international crisis; and the examined are the stage of progress of international crisis in efforts of fighting the crisis. Krichene, N., (2008). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCrude oil prices: trend and forecast; Oil productsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. Volume 8-133 of IMF working paper. Washington D.C: International Monetary Fund. In this volume, the Author has extensively explained the trends and the historic background of the oil prices origin, the reasons behind the rise and consequently the effects on the global market. Later the oil products contribution in the world economy is well discussed and its role in the international monetary funds. Several markets are critically compared and analyzed with major oil producing countryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s to show their oil production and their economical contribution to the world economy. This article describes the fluctuation on oil price and the impact of international crisis on oil prices on which present and the past event has been forecasted. McClelland, C. A. (1977). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThe Anticipation of International Crises: Prospects for Theory and ResearchÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. International Studies Quarterly. Vol.21 (1). pp.15-16. The author on this article has summed up the contribution of the high rising oil prices in the international crisis. The evident presented by the author includes the theories and the prospects used by the major oil producers in their oil exploitation. The economical inflation experienced in the world economy has contributed to unstable financial and trade environment. This has been anticipated by the high oil prices which is an essential commodity in many world economies. Ratner, M. (2011). Implications of EgyptÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Turmoil on Global Oil and Natural Gas Supply. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service.www.crs.gov This research seeks to analyze the correlation between oil prices and international crises across the major oil producers especially Egypt. The author provides the fundamental on the higher margin of oil prices adjustments and the longer the new prices are sustained, the greater the macroeconomic impact on the global economy. Oil is the primary source of energy in almost all of the major industries in the global economy. Egypt has experienced a lot of unrest in the country which has in turn affected the global fuel prices due to shortage of the supply. The consequences of the increasing oil prices have severely damaged the countryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s economy as well as the global market. The other energy sources especially the gas is also influenced by the increasing oil prices. Literature Cited Holsti, O. R. (1991). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âInternational Systems, System Change and Foreign Policy: Commentary on Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âChanging International SystemsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. Diplomatic History. Vol.15 (1). pp.83-89. Holsti, O. R. (1980). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âHistorians, Social Scientists, and Crisis Management: An Alternative ViewÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol.24 (4). pp.666. Krichene, N., (2008). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCrude oil prices: trend and forecast; Oil productsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. Volume 8-133 of IMF working paper. Washington D.C: International Monetary Fund. McClelland, C. A. (1977). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThe Anticipation of International Crises: Prospects for Theory and ResearchÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. International Studies Quarterly. Vol.21 (1). pp.15-16. Ratner, M. (2011). Implications of EgyptÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Turmoil on Global Oil and Natural Gas Supply. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service.www.crs.gov Richter, A., Pahl, N., (2009).Oil Price Developments-Driver, Economic Consequences and Policy Responses. Munich: GRIN Verlag. Trumbore, P. F. Boyer M. A. (2000). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âInternational Crisis Decision-making as a Two Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Level ProcessÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. Journal of Peace Research. Vol.37 (6). pp.682-683. Palash R. Ghosh (2010). oil and stock prices moving in tandem since financial crisis erupted. www.ibtimes.com
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Janna Mooneyham Mrs. Kirchner English Composition I 8 November 2015 Re-entry Program Prisons have been a way for us to remove persons of danger away from the rest of society, and it is the sole purpose. The prisoners are placed into a facility and they serve their time doing just it, nothing else. However, over time we began to initiate a new concept for prisons. Prisons can be used as a place to rehabilitate people and change the path which they have been following. We have given prisoners the ability to get an education, get work experience, get therapy, and get drug rehabilitation. There is a policy which has been debated upon however in this idea of reformation, and it is the parole policy for inmates. Even though parole has been around for a long time, and there is proof it helps lower recidivism rates, there are still people fighting against the re-entry program. While the program may have a few faults they are one which are on a local level, not with the program itself and it should be allowed to continue. The basic outline of the policy is as such: Inmates with a charge of one-year or longer have an option of being reformed back into society through the parole program but must be willing to change. After being released from incarceration, the parolee will begin the transition back into society while being under strict supervision by a parole officer. It is true some inmates do return back to a life of crime, but it depends on the circumstances of their release.Show MoreRelatedRe-entry: Prison and Reentry Programs4772 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pagespart of prior to prison. To avoid this, while a prisoner is in prison, the staff creates a reentry program for the prisoner. The reentry program takes affect once the prisoner leaves prison. These programs are created within the community to help the offender from committing new crimes and to integrate them back into society. These programs are also created to help with recidivism. Recidivism is the re-arrest, re-conviction, or re-incarceration of an offender after leaving prison. To reduce this highRead MorePrisoner Re-Entry Programs in America734 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAmerica sends more of its citizens to prison than any other country in the world. The United States, though only five percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population, incarcerate 25 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s prisoners. America is supposed to be the land of the free, not the land of the incarcerated. About 6,937,600 offenders were under the supervision of adult correctional systems at year end 2012. Around two-thirds of the prison population which is released annually (637,400) will recidivate within the firstRead MoreDiscovering Practices That Reduces Recidivism1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescycle of incarceration is being acknowledge and addressed. With this renewed interest in reentry come federal funds and an effort to rigorously evaluate programs aimed at helping prisoners successfully reintegrate into their communities. This paper examines these initiatives, describing lessons learned and ide ntifying obstacles of both program implementation and evaluation. The goal is to provide insights and recommendations for policymakers and practitioners in order to facilitate the developmentRead MoreRestoring Re Entry Programs Will Benefit Us All Rough Draft Unit 81587 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Restoring Re-entry Programs Will Benefit Us All Rough Draft unit 8 assignment To wit, there are easily over 700,000 offenders released from state or Federal prisons. 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The foc us will be on two prisons, one prison will have already implementedRead MoreOffenders And The Need For Treatment Case Study1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesjustice approach rather than with a public health approach has resulted in over-crowded prisons and offenders in need of treatment. The rise of the prison population began with the enactment of the federal Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 and The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (Olson Lurigio, 2014). Highlighting the escalating prison population, Olson and Lurigio (2014) noted that from 1990-2000 the state prison population had almost doubled. Additionally, Taxman, Perdoni, and Caudy (2013) indicatedRead MoreEvaluation of Correctional Education Essay1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMany correctional education programs focus on prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s way of thinking and ability to make decisions. One of the many reasons criminals keep returning to prison is because they are often times released after many years of being incarcerated and have no assista nce while returning to society. Correctional education programs are designed to eliminate such way of thinking so prison re-entry rate will drop. Programs such as Preparing Inmates for Re-Entry through Assistance, Training, and EmploymentRead MoreOffender Re Entry And Recidivism1038 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOFFENDER RE-ENTRY AND RECIDIVISM Gabriela Jimenez Dr. Kucharski PSY 370-02 May, 2016 Offender Re-entry and Recidivism Corrections and Criminal Justice are major fields in the area of psychological research. The attention driven to these two fields reflect greatly on the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s interest and opinion on the control of crime in the United States. Risk, need, and other characteristics of offendersÃ¢â¬â¢ influence on the management of programs to reduce criminal recidivism (Andrews,1989)Read MoreParole1390 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof the parole system at the state level can be easily defined. One of the strongest arguments against the destruction of the parole system is the overpopulation problem in most prisons. Since the early 1980s, the population of inmates in correctional institutions has grown astronomically. Between 1986 and 1991, prisons have seen a 41% increase in the population of violent crime offenders. For drug related offenses, the number has increased three-fold. So it would make sense to argue that eliminatingRead MoreCollege Education For The United States873 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesshould not be forced to fund these types of programs, others agree that it is extremely beneficial to not only the inmates but also the taxpayers as well. Not only are the inmates the kind of people in society who need education the most, but studies have shown a significant decrease in the recidivism rate of prisoners who participated in educational programs while incarcerated. I agree that California prisons should provide college educational programs to inmates because inmate s need education more